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Special characters
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Johannes Luger

Head of SEO @SEOschmiede

Special characters

Special characters - those small yet powerful symbols like #, @, %, &, *, and so on that we often overlook in our digital correspondence. They may seem insignificant at first glance, but they can have a huge impact on the readability, comprehensibility, and even findability of our texts.
Content:

Definition: Special characters are special symbols that go beyond the alphanumeric character set, i.e. letters and numbers. These include symbols such as #, @, %, &, * and many more. In a wide variety of contexts, special characters carry specific semantic or functional meanings - from programming languages to mathematical notations to text structuring and formatting. Their importance also extends to digital platforms, particularly in social media and Google SERPs. Here, they can help make content stand out, improve readability, and convey information in an effective way. They play a crucial role in improving visibility and engagement in social media posts, as well as improving rankings in Google SERPs.

Unicode block arrows โ† 

The Unicode block "Arrows"(English: "Arrows") contains various arrow symbols that can be used for different purposes. These arrow symbols range from simple arrows used in textual contexts to special arrows used in mathematical or technical notations.

Unicode numberCharactersOfficial designationDescription
U+2190 (8592) โ†
LEFTWARDS ARROWLeft arrow
U+2191 (8593) โ†‘
UPWARDS ARROWArrow up
U+2192 (8594) โ†’
RIGHTWARDS ARROWRight arrow
U+2193 (8595) โ†“
DOWNWARDS ARROWDown arrow
U+2194 (8596) โ†”
LEFT RIGHT ARROWLeft and right arrow
U+2195 (8597) โ†•
UP DOWN ARROWArrow up and down
U+2196 (8598) โ†–
NORTH WEST ARROWNorthwest arrow
U+2197 (8599) โ†—
NORTH EAST ARROWArrow to the northeast
U+2198 (8600) โ†˜
SOUTH EAST ARROWSoutheast arrow
U+2199 (8601) โ†™
SOUTH WEST ARROWSouthwest arrow
U+219A (8602) โ†š
LEFTWARDS ARROW WITH STROKECrossed out arrow to the left
U+219B (8603) โ†›
RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH STROKECrossed out arrow to the right
U+219C (8604) โ†œ
LEFTWARDS WAVE ARROWWavy arrow to the left
U+219D (8605) โ†
RIGHTWARDS WAVE ARROWWavy arrow to the right
U+219E (8606) โ†ž
LEFTWARDS TWO HEADED ARROWArrow to the left with double tip
U+219F (8607) โ†Ÿ
UPWARDS TWO HEADED ARROWArrow up with double tip
U+21A0 (8608) โ† 
RIGHTWARDS TWO HEADED ARROWArrow to the right with double tip
U+21A1 (8609) โ†ก
DOWNWARDS TWO HEADED ARROWArrow down with double tip
U+21A2 (8610) โ†ข
LEFTWARDS ARROW WITH TAILLeft arrow with tail
U+21A3 (8611) โ†ฃ
RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH TAILRight arrow with tail
U+21A4 (8612) โ†ค
LEFTWARDS ARROW FROM BARArrow left from crossbar
U+21A5 (8613) โ†ฅ
UPWARDS ARROW FROM BARArrow up from crossbar
U+21A6 (8614) โ†ฆ
RIGHTWARDS ARROW FROM BARRight arrow from crossbar
U+21A7 (8615) โ†ง
DOWNWARDS ARROW FROM BARArrow down from crossbar
U+21A8 (8616) โ†จ
UP DOWN ARROW WITH BASEUnderlined up and down arrow
U+21A9 (8617) โ†ฉ
LEFTWARDS ARROW WITH HOOKLeft arrow with hook
U+21AA (8618) โ†ช
RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH HOOKRight arrow with hook
U+21AB (8619) โ†ซ
LEFTWARDS ARROW WITH LOOPArrow to the left with rotation
U+21AC (8620) โ†ฌ
RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH LOOPArrow to the right with rotation
U+21AD (8621) โ†ญ
LEFT RIGHT WAVE ARROWWavy arrow to the left and right
U+21AE (8622) โ†ฎ
LEFT RIGHT ARROW WITH STROKECrossed out arrow to the left and right
U+21AF (8623) โ†ฏ
DOWNWARDS ZIGZAG ARROWFlash Arrow
U+21B0 (8624) โ†ฐ
UPWARDS ARROW WITH TIP LEFTWARDSArrow up with tip to the left
U+21B1 (8625) โ†ฑ
UPWARDS ARROW WITH TIP RIGHTWARDSArrow up with point to the right
U+21B2 (8626) โ†ฒ
DOWNWARDS ARROW WITH TIP LEFTWARDSDown arrow with tip to the left
U+21B3 (8627) โ†ณ
DOWNWARDS ARROW WITH TIP RIGHTWARDSDown arrow with point to the right
U+21B4 (8628) โ†ด
RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH CORNER DOWNWARDSAngled right and down arrow
U+21B5 (8629) โ†ต
DOWNWARDS ARROW WITH CORNER LEFTWARDSAngled down and left arrow (Enter key icon)
U+21B6 (8630) โ†ถ
ANTICLOCKWISE TOP SEMICIRCLE ARROWUpper semicircle arrow counterclockwise
U+21B7 (8631) โ†ท
CLOCKWISE TOP SEMICIRCLE ARROWUpper semicircle arrow clockwise
U+21B8 (8632) โ†ธ
NORTH WEST ARROW TO LONG BARNorthwest arrow to long crossbar
U+21B9 (8633) โ†น
LEFTWARDS ARROW TO BAR OVER RIGHTWARDS ARROW TO BARLeft arrow to crossbar via Right arrow to crossbar (keyboard symbol for the tab key)
U+21BA (8634) โ†บ
ANTICLOCKWISE OPEN CIRCLE ARROWCircle arrow counterclockwise
U+21BB (8635) โ†ป
CLOCKWISE OPEN CIRCLE ARROWCircle arrow clockwise
U+21BC (8636) โ†ผ
LEFTWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB UPWARDSHarpoon turned to the left and upwards
U+21BD (8637) โ†ฝ
LEFTWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB DOWNWARDSHarpoon turned to the left and downwards
U+21BE (8638) โ†พ
UPWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB RIGHTWARDSHarpoon rotated up and to the right
U+21BF (8639) โ†ฟ
UPWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB LEFTWARDSHarpoon turned up and to the left
U+21C0 (8640) โ‡€
RIGHTWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB UPWARDSHarpoon rotated to the right and upwards
U+21C1 (8641) โ‡
RIGHTWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB DOWNWARDSHarpoon rotated to the right and downwards
U+21C2 (8642) โ‡‚
DOWNWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB RIGHTWARDSHarpoon down and rotated to the right
U+21C3 (8643) โ‡ƒ
DOWNWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB LEFTWARDSHarpoon down and turned to the left
U+21C4 (8644) โ‡„
RIGHTWARDS ARROW OVER LEFTWARDS ARROWRight arrow over Left arrow
U+21C5 (8645) โ‡…
UPWARDS ARROW LEFTWARDS OF DOWNWARDS ARROWUp arrow to the left of Down arrow
U+21C6 (8646) โ‡†
LEFTWARDS ARROW OVER RIGHTWARDS ARROWLeft arrow over Right arrow
U+21C7 (8647) โ‡‡
LEFTWARDS PAIRED ARROWSPaired arrows to the left
U+21C8 (8648) โ‡ˆ
UPWARDS PAIRED ARROWSPaired arrows up
U+21C9 (8649) โ‡‰
RIGHTWARDS PAIRED ARROWSPaired arrows to the right
U+21CA (8650) โ‡Š
DOWNWARDS PAIRED ARROWSPaired down arrows
U+21CB (8651) โ‡‹
LEFTWARDS HARPOON OVER RIGHTWARDS HARPOONHarpoon to the left over harpoon to the right
U+21CC (8652) โ‡Œ
RIGHTWARDS HARPOON OVER LEFTWARDS HARPOONHarpoon to the right over harpoon to the left
U+21CD (8653) โ‡
LEFTWARDS DOUBLE ARROW WITH STROKECrossed out thick arrow to the left
U+21CE (8654) โ‡Ž
LEFT RIGHT DOUBLE ARROW WITH STROKECrossed out thick arrow to the left and right
U+21CF (8655) โ‡
RIGHTWARDS DOUBLE ARROW WITH STROKECrossed out thick arrow to the right
U+21D0 (8656) โ‡
LEFTWARDS DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow to the left
U+21D1 (8657) โ‡‘
UPWARDS DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow up
U+21D2 (8658) โ‡’
RIGHTWARDS DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow to the right
U+21D3 (8659) โ‡“
DOWNWARDS DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow down
U+21D4 (8660) โ‡”
LEFT RIGHT DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow to the left and right
U+21D5 (8661) โ‡•
UP DOWN DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow up and down
U+21D6 (8662) โ‡–
NORTH WEST DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow to the northwest
U+21D7 (8663) โ‡—
NORTH EAST DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow to the northeast
U+21D8 (8664) โ‡˜
SOUTH EAST DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow southeast
U+21D9 (8665) โ‡™
SOUTH WEST DOUBLE ARROWThick arrow to the southwest
U+21DA (8666) โ‡š
LEFTWARDS TRIPLE ARROWVery thick arrow to the left
U+21DB (8667) โ‡›
RIGHTWARDS TRIPLE ARROWVery thick arrow to the right
U+21DC (8668) โ‡œ
LEFTWARDS SQUIGGLE ARROWBlurred left arrow
U+21DD (8669) โ‡
RIGHTWARDS SQUIGGLE ARROWBlurred right arrow
U+21DE (8670) โ‡ž
UPWARDS ARROW WITH DOUBLE STROKEDouble crossed out arrow pointing upwards
U+21DF (8671) โ‡Ÿ
DOWNWARDS ARROW WITH DOUBLE STROKEDouble crossed out down arrow
U+21E0 (8672) โ‡ 
LEFTWARDS DASHED ARROWDotted arrow to the left
U+21E1 (8673) โ‡ก
UPWARDS DASHED ARROWDotted arrow up
U+21E2 (8674) โ‡ข
RIGHTWARDS DASHED ARROWDotted arrow to the right
U+21E3 (8675) โ‡ฃ
DOWNWARDS DASHED ARROWDotted arrow down
U+21E4 (8676) โ‡ค
LEFTWARDS ARROW TO BARLeft arrow to the horizontal bar (keyboard symbol for the backward tab character)
U+21E5 (8677) โ‡ฅ
RIGHTWARDS ARROW TO BARRight arrow to the horizontal bar (keyboard symbol for the horizontal tab character)
U+21E6 (8678) โ‡ฆ
LEFTWARDS WHITE ARROWWhite arrow to the left
U+21E7 (8679) โ‡ง
UPWARDS WHITE ARROWWhite arrow pointing up (keyboard symbol for the shift key)
U+21E8 (8680) โ‡จ
RIGHTWARDS WHITE ARROWWhite arrow to the right
U+21E9 (8681) โ‡ฉ
DOWNWARDS WHITE ARROWWhite arrow pointing down (keyboard symbol for the toggle lock)
U+21EA (8682) โ‡ช
UPWARDS WHITE ARROW FROM BARWhite arrow up from crossbar
U+21EB (8683) โ‡ซ
UPWARDS WHITE ARROW ON PEDESTALWhite arrow up on pedestal
U+21EC (8684) โ‡ฌ
UPWARDS WHITE ARROW ON PEDESTAL WITH HORIZONTAL BARWhite arrow pointing up on pedestal with horizontal bar
U+21ED (8685) โ‡ญ
UPWARDS WHITE ARROW ON PEDESTAL WITH VERTICAL BARWhite arrow up on pedestal with vertical line
U+21EE (8686) โ‡ฎ
UPWARDS WHITE DOUBLE ARROWThick white arrow up
U+21EF (8687) โ‡ฏ
UPWARDS WHITE DOUBLE ARROW ON PEDESTALThick white arrow up on pedestal
U+21F0 (8688) โ‡ฐ
RIGHTWARDS WHITE ARROW FROM WALLWhite arrow to the right from wall
U+21F1 (8689) โ‡ฑ
NORTH WEST ARROW TO CORNERNorthwest arrow to corner
U+21F2 (8690) โ‡ฒ
SOUTH EAST ARROW TO CORNERArrow southeast to the corner
U+21F3 (8691) โ‡ณ
UP DOWN WHITE ARROWWhite arrow up and down
U+21F4 (8692) โ‡ด
RIGHT ARROW WITH SMALL CIRCLEArrow right with circle
U+21F5 (8693) โ‡ต
DOWNWARDS ARROW LEFTWARDS OF UPWARDS ARROWDown arrow to the left of Up arrow
U+21F6 (8694) โ‡ถ
THREE RIGHTWARDS ARROWSThree arrows to the right
U+21F7 (8695) โ‡ท
LEFTWARDS ARROW WITH VERTICAL STROKEArrow to the left with vertical line
U+21F8 (8696) โ‡ธ
RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH VERTICAL STROKEArrow to the right with vertical line
U+21F9 (8697) โ‡น
LEFT RIGHT ARROW WITH VERTICAL STROKEArrow to the left and right with vertical line
U+21FA (8698) โ‡บ
LEFTWARDS ARROW WITH DOUBLE VERTICAL STROKELeft arrow with double vertical line
U+21FB (8699) โ‡ป
RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH DOUBLE VERTICAL STROKEArrow to the right with double vertical stroke
U+21FC (8700) โ‡ผ
LEFT RIGHT ARROW WITH DOUBLE VERTICAL STROKELeft and right arrow with double vertical line
U+21FD (8701) โ‡ฝ
LEFTWARDS OPEN-HEADED ARROWLeft arrow with hollow arrowhead
U+21FE (8702) โ‡พ
RIGHTWARDS OPEN-HEADED ARROWArrow to the right with hollow arrowhead
U+21FF (8703) โ‡ฟ
LEFT RIGHT OPEN-HEADED ARROWLeft and right arrow with hollow arrowhead

Unicode block smileys ๐Ÿ˜‰

The Unicode block Smileys (Emoticons, U+1F600 to U+1F64F) is a special area in the Unicode character set that contains a variety of graphical representations of emotions and facial expressions. These characters are commonly known as "smileys" and are often used in text messages, chat conversations, emails, and social media to express emotions and moods.

The Unicode block Smileys includes a wide range of emoticons, from simple smiling faces to more complex expressions such as joy, sadness, surprise, anger and many more. Each smiley is represented by a specific Unicode code that allows it to be displayed in digital texts.

Unicode numberCharactersOfficial designationDescription
U+1F600 (128512) ๐Ÿ˜€
Grinning faceGRINNING FACE
U+1F601 (128513) ๐Ÿ˜
Grinning face with smiling eyesGRINNING FACE WITH SMILING EYES
U+1F602 (128514) ๐Ÿ˜‚
Face with tears of joyFACE WITH TEARS OF JOY
U+1F603 (128515) ๐Ÿ˜ƒ
Face with open mouthSMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
U+1F604 (128516) ๐Ÿ˜„
Face with open mouth and smiling eyesSMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND SMILING EYES
U+1F605 (128517) ๐Ÿ˜…
Face with open mouth and tear of sweatSMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND COLD SWEAT
U+1F606 (128518) ๐Ÿ˜†
Face with open mouth and spasmodically closed eyesSMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND TIGHTLY-CLOSED EYES
U+1F607 (128519) ๐Ÿ˜‡
Angel faceSMILING FACE WITH HALO
U+1F608 (128520) ๐Ÿ˜ˆ
Devil faceSMILING FACE WITH HORNS
U+1F609 (128521) ๐Ÿ˜‰
Wink faceWINKING FACE
U+1F60A (128522) ๐Ÿ˜Š
Radiant faceSMILING FACE WITH SMILING EYES
U+1F60B (128523) ๐Ÿ˜‹
Face licking off with tongueFACE SAVOURING DELICIOUS FOOD
U+1F60C (128524) ๐Ÿ˜Œ
Relieved faceRELIEVED FACE
U+1F60D (128525) ๐Ÿ˜
Face in loveSMILING FACE WITH HEART-SHAPED EYES
U+1F60E (128526) ๐Ÿ˜Ž
Face with sunglassesSMILING FACE WITH SUNGLASSES
U+1F60F (128527) ๐Ÿ˜
Grinning faceSMIRKING FACE
U+1F610 (128528) ๐Ÿ˜
Neutral faceNEUTRAL FACE
U+1F611 (128529) ๐Ÿ˜‘
Expressionless faceEXPRESSIONLESS FACE
U+1F612 (128530) ๐Ÿ˜’
Not pleased faceUNAMUSED FACE
U+1F613 (128531) ๐Ÿ˜“
Face with sweat tearFACE WITH COLD SWEAT
U+1F614 (128532) ๐Ÿ˜”
Thoughtful facePENSIVE FACE
U+1F615 (128533) ๐Ÿ˜•
Confused faceCONFUSED FACE
U+1F616 (128534) ๐Ÿ˜–
Dismayed faceCONFOUNDED FACE
U+1F617 (128535) ๐Ÿ˜—
Kissing faceKISSING FACE
U+1F618 (128536) ๐Ÿ˜˜
Kiss throwing faceFACE THROWING A KISS
U+1F619 (128537) ๐Ÿ˜™
Kissing face with smiling eyesKISSING FACE WITH SMILING EYES
U+1F61A (128538) ๐Ÿ˜š
Kissing face with closed eyesKISSING FACE WITH CLOSED EYES
U+1F61B (128539) ๐Ÿ˜›
Tongue sticking out faceFACE WITH STUCK-OUT TONGUE
U+1F61C (128540) ๐Ÿ˜œ
Winking, tongue sticking out faceFACE WITH STUCK-OUT TONGUE AND WINKING EYE
U+1F61D (128541) ๐Ÿ˜
Tongue sticking out face with spasmodically closed eyesFACE WITH STUCK-OUT TONGUE AND TIGHTLY-CLOSED EYES
U+1F61E (128542) ๐Ÿ˜ž
Disappointed faceDISAPPOINTED FACE
U+1F61F (128543) ๐Ÿ˜Ÿ
Concerned faceWORRIED FACE
U+1F620 (128544) ๐Ÿ˜ 
Angry faceANGRY FACE
U+1F621 (128545) ๐Ÿ˜ก
Pouty facePOUTING FACE
U+1F622 (128546) ๐Ÿ˜ข
Crying faceCRYING FACE
U+1F623 (128547) ๐Ÿ˜ฃ
Persistent facePERSEVERING FACE
U+1F624 (128548) ๐Ÿ˜ค
Face with nose steamFACE WITH STEAM FROM NOSE
U+1F625 (128549) ๐Ÿ˜ฅ
Disappointed but relieved faceDISAPPOINTED BUT RELIEVED FACE
U+1F626 (128550) ๐Ÿ˜ฆ
FROWNING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
U+1F627 (128551) ๐Ÿ˜ง
ANGUISHED FACE
U+1F628 (128552) ๐Ÿ˜จ
Anxious faceFEARFUL FACE
U+1F629 (128553) ๐Ÿ˜ฉ
Tired faceWEARY FACE
U+1F62A (128554) ๐Ÿ˜ช
Sleepy faceSLEEPY FACE
U+1F62B (128555) ๐Ÿ˜ซ
Tired faceTIRED FACE
U+1F62C (128556) ๐Ÿ˜ฌ
Grimace faceGRIMACING FACE
U+1F62D (128557) ๐Ÿ˜ญ
Howling faceLOUDLY CRYING FACE
U+1F62E (128558) ๐Ÿ˜ฎ
FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
U+1F62F (128559) ๐Ÿ˜ฏ
HUSHED FACE
U+1F630 (128560) ๐Ÿ˜ฐ
Face with open mouth and tear of sweatFACE WITH OPEN MOUTH AND COLD SWEAT
U+1F631 (128561) ๐Ÿ˜ฑ
Screaming faceFACE SCREAMING IN FEAR
U+1F632 (128562) ๐Ÿ˜ฒ
Surprised faceASTONISHED FACE
U+1F633 (128563) ๐Ÿ˜ณ
Reddened faceFLUSHED FACE
U+1F634 (128564) ๐Ÿ˜ด
Sleeping faceSLEEPING FACE
U+1F635 (128565) ๐Ÿ˜ต
Dizzy faceDIZZY FACE
U+1F636 (128566) ๐Ÿ˜ถ
Face without mouthFACE WITHOUT MOUTH
U+1F637 (128567) ๐Ÿ˜ท
Face with protective maskFACE WITH MEDICAL MASK
U+1F638 (128568) ๐Ÿ˜ธ
Smiling cat faceGRINNING CAT FACE WITH SMILING EYES
U+1F639 (128569) ๐Ÿ˜น
Cat face with tears of joyCAT FACE WITH TEARS OF JOY
U+1F63A (128570) ๐Ÿ˜บ
Laughing cat faceSMILING CAT FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH
U+1F63B (128571) ๐Ÿ˜ป
Cat face in loveSMILING CAT FACE WITH HEART-SHAPED EYES
U+1F63C (128572) ๐Ÿ˜ผ
Mocking cat faceCAT FACE WITH WRY SMILE
U+1F63D (128573) ๐Ÿ˜ฝ
Kissing cat faceKISSING CAT FACE WITH CLOSED EYES
U+1F63E (128574) ๐Ÿ˜พ
Pouty cat facePOUTING CAT FACE
U+1F63F (128575) ๐Ÿ˜ฟ
Crying cat faceCRYING CAT FACE
U+1F640 (128576) ๐Ÿ™€
Tired cat faceWEARY CAT FACE
U+1F641 (128577) ๐Ÿ™
Slightly sad faceSLIGHTLY FROWNING FACE
U+1F642 (128578) ๐Ÿ™‚
Slightly smiling faceSLIGHTLY SMILING FACE
U+1F643 (128579) ๐Ÿ™ƒ
Face upside downUPSIDE-DOWN FACE
U+1F644 (128580) ๐Ÿ™„
Face with rolling eyesFACE WITH ROLLING EYES
U+1F645 (128581) ๐Ÿ™…
Rejecting faceFACE WITH NO GOOD GESTURE
U+1F646 (128582) ๐Ÿ™†
Accepting faceFACE WITH OK GESTURE
U+1F647 (128583) ๐Ÿ™‡
Bowing personPERSON BOWING DEEPLY
U+1F648 (128584) ๐Ÿ™ˆ
Monkey closing eyesSEE-NO-EVIL MONKEY
U+1F649 (128585) ๐Ÿ™‰
Ears closing monkeyHEAR-NO-EVIL MONKEY
U+1F64A (128586) ๐Ÿ™Š
Mouth closing monkeySPEAK-NO-EVIL MONKEY
U+1F64B (128587) ๐Ÿ™‹
Raising hand happy personHAPPY PERSON RAISING ONE HAND
U+1F64C (128588) ๐Ÿ™Œ
Both hands raising happy personPERSON RAISING BOTH HANDS IN CELEBRATION
U+1F64D (128589) ๐Ÿ™
Sad personPERSON FROWNING
U+1F64E (128590) ๐Ÿ™Ž
Pouting personPERSON WITH POUTING FACE
U+1F64F (128591) ๐Ÿ™
Praying personPERSON WITH FOLDED HANDS

Frequently asked questions

Special characters are special symbols that are not part of the normal letters or numbers we use in the alphabet. They can be used in many different contexts and there are many different types of special characters. Here are some examples:

  1. Punctuation: These characters help us to make sentences and their meanings clear. Examples are period (.), comma (,), question mark (?), exclamation mark (!), and quotation marks (" or ').

  2. Mathematical charactersThese signs are used in mathematics and sometimes in other sciences. Examples are plus (+), minus (-), times (* or x), divided (/), equals (=), greater than (>), less than (<), and so on.

  3. Symbols for specific things: Some special characters stand for certain things or ideas. Examples include the dollar sign ($), which stands for money, the percent sign (%), which stands for percentages, the at sign (@), which is often used in email addresses, and the hashtag (#), which is used in social media.

  4. Diacritical marks: These are markings added to a letter to change its pronunciation. Examples are umlauts in German (รค, รถ, รผ) and accents in French (รฉ, รจ, รช, รด).

In most languages we use, there are no "extra" characters in our alphabet. Alphabets like the ones we use for German, English, Greek and other languages have a certain number of letters. Each letter stands for itself.

Take, for example, the alphabet we use for German and English. It has 26 letters, from A to Z (and from a to z when we add the lowercase letters). There are no "extra" characters in these 26 letters.

But some languages add a few characters to these 26 letters to change the pronunciation of a letter. For example, in German we have the characters รค, รถ, รผ and in French there are characters like รฉ, รจ, รช, รด.

Then there are other characters we use when writing, such as commas, periods, and question marks. But these characters are not letters.

Important note on use

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